Kitchen Book

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Cooking Terms

  • Al dente - The pasta is cooked until tender but still has a firm, chewy texture.
  • Bake -To cook in the oven.
  • Baste -To brush liquids such as fat, meat drippings, marinade, water or juices over meat during roasting to add flavor and to prevent it from drying out.
  • Batter - A mixture of flour, butter, shortening or oil, and liquid. Batter usually describes cakes, cookies or muffins. A batter is different from dough because dough can be formed into a ball and it keeps its shape.
  • Beat - To beat means to stir or mix ingredients with a whisk, spoon or a mixer.
  • Blanch - To blanch food immerse fruit or vegetable in boiling water for a minute or so, remove and place in a bowl of ice water. This is often used before freezing fruits or vegetables. Or you can blanch a fruit or vegetable such as tomatoes or peaches to remove their skins.
  • Blend - Similar to beat. Add ingredients together and blending them with a spoon or a mixer.
  • Boil - To cook a liquid such as water or broth so it reaches a boiling temperature. You will see bubbles in the pan.
  • Braise - To tenderize meat, you brown meat or poultry in oil. Then place in roasting pan and cook in the oven or place directly in the crock pot.
  • Bread -To bread something is to coat it with bread crumbs, cracker crumbs, or other crumb mixture before cooking it.
  • Broil -To cook meat or other food under the heat source. This seals in flavor.
  • Broth - Broth is a liquid made by cooking meat, vegetables or seafood with herbs, bones and water.
  • Brown - Saute meat or vegetables in a frying pan with oil or butter until it turns brown in color.
  • Brush - To brush food is when you use a pastry brush and brush the top of the food with melted butter or egg white.
  • Bundt pan - Tube baking pan.
  • Caramelize - Browning sugar over medium heat.
  • Chill - Place in refrigerator.
  • Chop - To cut food into pieces with a knife, food chopper, blender, or food processor.
  • Coat - To cover both sides of a food with flour, crumbs or batter. See definition for bread.
  • Coats a spoon - When stirring liquid in a saucepan the liquid will cover a metal spoon.
  • Combine - Adding ingredients together and stirring.
  • Core - To remove the inside of a fruit. Apples or pears are an example of a fruit that is usually cored.
  • Cream - Mixing butter, shortening or margarine with sugar until smooth and creamy.
  • Crush - To crush a food into tiny pieces with a rolling pin or kitchen mallet.
  • Cube - Cutting foods such as vegetables or meat into pieces with 6 equal sides.
  • Cut in - Blend or cream butter or shortening into a flour mixture.
  • Dash - To add a dash of something in cooking is less than 1/16 teaspoon. Since there is no 1/16 teaspoon you use a pinch amount.
  • Deep Fry - To cook food completely covered in hot oil.
  • Deglaze - After cooking or roasting meat you add liquid such as milk, broth or water to dissolve the juices stuck to the bottom of the pan. Often deglazing is used when making gravy.
  • Dice - To cut food into small cubes.
  • Dilute - To thin a liquid by adding more liquid, usually water or milk, to it.
  • Direct heat - Direct heat is when food is placed directly on a cooking source such as toasting or grilling.
  • Dissolve - To dissolve something is to blend food together to make a liquid. For example, add water and sugar together and stirring until sugar is dissolved.
  • Dot - Add small pieces of ingredients over food for even melting. (usually butter.)
  • Dough - A dough is a combination of flour, liquid and other ingredients to make a firm mixture usually for bread or cookies.
  • Dredge - To lightly coat food with flour, bread crumbs or cracker crumbs. See "coat" above.
  • Drippings - Drippings are what is left in the bottom of a pan after roasting meat.
  • Drizzle - Pouring a liquid over food in a slow, light trickle.
  • Dust - To sprinkle food with flour, spices or sugar. For example before kneading bread dust the counter top with flour.
  • Egg wash - Blending eggs with water and then coating or brushing baked goods.
  • Entrée - The main dish.
  • Fillet - Remove bones from fish or meat.
  • Firm ball stage - In regards to making candy. This is when a drop of boiling syrup dropped in cold water forms a ball that will give slightly when squeezed.
  • Flake - Breaking food apart with a fork usually used for fish.
  • Flambé - To light a sauce or liquid with flames.
  • Flute - To press edges of a pie crust together in a decorative way.
  • Fold -To combine ingredients together carefully by stirring through the mixture and bringing the spoon back up to the top gently.
  • Fry - To cook food in hot oil or butter until browned or cooked through.
  • Garnish - To add an edible decoration to make food more attractive.
  • Gel - To let a food set or become solid by adding gelatin.
  • Glaze - To coat food with a mixture that gives a shiny appearance. For example, a chocolate glaze on a dough nut.
  • Grate - To shred food into tiny pieces by rubbing against a grater.
  • Grease - To coat or rub a pan with oil or shortening. For cakes you grease and dust the pan with flour.
  • Grill - To cook food over direct heat in a grill or direct flame.
  • Grind - To crush food with a food processor, blender or grinder.
  • Hard-ball stage - In regards to candy making, this is when syrup has cooked long enough to form a solid ball in cold water.
  • Hull - To remove leafs from fruits such as strawberries.
  • Ice - To spread a glaze or frosting on a cake or to cool food down by placing on ice.
  • Julienne - Cut food into long thin strips.
  • Knead - Massage dough with your hands in a back and forth pressing and folding motion for several minutes until dough is smooth.
  • Lukewarm - A temperature of about 95ºF, not too hot and not too cold.
  • Marble - To swirl food together.
  • Marinate - To season food by placing it in a flavorful mixture called a marinade.
  • Mash - To press food to remove lumps.
  • Meringue - Egg whites beaten until stiff. Then add sugar to the egg whites. This is used for topping pies or other baked items.
  • Microwave - To cook food in a microwave.
  • Mince - To chop in tiny pieces.
  • Mix -Stirring ingredients together with a spoon or a mixer until well combined.
  • Moisten - Adding liquid to dry ingredients to make wet but not too wet.
  • Pan broil - To cook food in a skillet over high heat by itself and removing fat from pan as it cooks off meat.
  • Pan fry - To cook with a small amount of oil or butter.
  • Parboil - To cook food partly in boiling liquid. Also called blanching.
  • Parchment - Heat-resistant paper used in cooking.
  • Pare - To peel or trim a food, usually vegetables.
  • Peaks - Egg whites whipped until stiff peaks form or they stay upright.
  • Peel - To remove the outer skin of fruit and vegetables with a knife or vegetable peeler.
  • Pinch - To add less than 1/16 teaspoon. See definition of dash.
  • Pipe - To use a pastry bag or plastic bag with a corner cut off to decorate food.
  • Pit - To take out the stone of a fruit such as cherry or peach.
  • Poach - To simmer in boiling liquid.
  • Pressure Cooking - To cook using steam trapped under a lid at a high temperature.
  • Proof - The process of adding yeast to warm water or milk.
  • Punch down - In regards to baking bread you push down risen yeast dough with your fist.
  • Purée - To blend food together until it becomes completely smooth.
  • Reconstitute - Adding water to dried food to return it back to its original consistency.
  • Reduce - To boil liquids down to enhance flavor or thicken.
  • Re-hydrate - To soak or cook dried foods in liquid.
  • Roast - To cook in an oven uncovered.
  • Roux - A thickened paste made from butter and flour usually used for thicken sauces.
  • Rub - A mixture of ground spices that is rubbed over meat and then baked or roasted.
  • Sauté - Cooking food in hot oil in a pan.
  • Scald - To cook just under the boiling point.
  • Score - Cut diagonal slits on the top of meat.
  • Sear - To cook meat in a frying pan under high heat to seal in juices. Then the meat is usually cooked in the oven after searing.
  • Season - To flavor meat with salt, pepper or other seasonings.
  • Set - Allowing food to become solid.
  • Shred - To cut with a knife, tear with your hands, or use a grater to cut food into long strips. For meat, two forks can be used to shred cooked roasted meat.
  • Sift - To remove lumps from dry ingredients with a mesh strainer or flour sifter.
  • Simmer - To cook over low heat so food or liquid doesn't reach the boiling point.
  • Skim - To take the top layer of fat from soups or other liquids with a slotted spoon or other utensils.
  • Skewer - Used for cooking on a stick. Usually wood or metal stick.
  • Steam - To cook food in a covered pan with a small amount of boiling water.
  • Steep - To soak dry ingredients in liquid until the flavor is infused into the liquid.
  • Stew - Cooking meat and vegetables in broth. This works best with less tender cuts of meat.
  • Stir - To blend ingredients together.
  • Stir-Fry - Frying cut meat and vegetables on high heat with a small amount of oil.
  • Strain - To use a colander or strainer to drain liquid off cooked food.
  • Thicken - To stir together cornstarch and cold water and then adding to food to thicken.
  • Thin - To add more liquid to food.
  • Toss - Mix ingredients gently together to combine.
  • Unleavened - Baked goods with no baking powder, yeast or baking soda added.
  • Water Bath - To cook a dish that is set in a larger pan. The larger pan holds boiling water.
  • Whip - To beat ingredients together quickly with a spoon or mixer until light and fluffy.
  • Whisk - To mix together by beating with a whisk or mixer.
  • Zest - To remove the outer part of citrus fruits with a small grater.
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Adukkala Nighandu

  • ENGLISH

    MALAYALAM

    HINDI

  • Allspice

    Sarva sughandhi

    Kebab Cheeni

  • Almonds

    Badaam

    Badaam

  • Aniseed

    Shoumpu

    Suwa or Shopa

  • Asafoetida

    Kayam

    Hing

  • Banana ( Raw)

    Ethakka / Nenthrakkaya

  • Banana ( Ripe )

    Ethapazham / Nenthrapazham

  • Basil

    Thulasi

    Tulsi

  • Basmati Rice

    Basumathi ari

    Basmati Chaaval

  • Bay Leaf

    Karuvaela

    Tej Patta

  • Bengal gram

    Kadala

    Urad

  • Bengal gram dal

    Kadala parippu

    Urad daal

  • Black Cardamom

    Badi Elaichi

    Black Cumin Seed

  • Black gram

    Uzhunnu

  • Black Mustard Seeds

    Kadugu

    Rai

  • Black Onion seeds

     

    Kalnji

  • Black Pepper

    Kurumulaku

    Kali Mirch

  • Black Raisins

    Unakka Munthiri

    Sultana

  • Black Salt

    Karutha uppu

    Kala Namak or Sanchal

  • Bishop’s weed

    Omum

    Ajowan

  • Brinjal

    Vazhuthinanga

  • Cabbage

    Muttakose

  • Cambodge

    Kudampuli

  • Caraway seed

    Sheema jeerakam

  • Carom Seeds

    Ayamodakam

    Ajwain

  • Cardamom

    Elakka

    Elaichi

  • Cassia

    Kasha kasha

    Kashash

  • Cashew nuts

    Kasuvandi parippu

    Kaju

  • Channa Daal

  • Cinnamon

    Karuvapatta

    Dalchini

  • Clarified butter

    Neyyu

    Ghee

  • Cloves

    Grambu

    Lavang

  • Coconut milk

    Thenga paal / Nalikera paal

    Narial Ka Doodh

  • Coconut Whole

    Nalikeram / Thenga

    Narial

  • Coriander Leaf

    Malli ila

  • Coriander Powder

    Malli podi

  • Dhania powder

  • Coriander seeds

    Malli

    Dhania

  • Cumin seeds

    Jeerakam

    Jeera

  • Curry Leaf

    Curry veppila

    Kaddipatta

  • Dates

    Eethapazham

    Khajur

  • Desiccated Coconut

    Unakkiya Thengapeera Sathakuppa

    Sukha Narial

  • Dill seed and weed

    Sathakuppa

    Suwa

  • Edible sliver foil

    Varaq or Chaandi

  • Fennel seeds

    Perumjeerakam

    Saunf

  • Fenugreek Leaves - dried

     

    Kasoor Methi

  • Fenugreek leaves

    Uluvayila

    Methi Leaves

  • Fenugreek seeds

    Uluva

    Methi seeds

  • Flattened Rice Flakes

    Aval

    Poha

  • Garlic

    Veluthulli

    Lahsun

  • Ginger

    Inchi

    Aadrak

  • Golden raisins

    Kismis

    Kishmish

  • Gram Flour

    Kadala Mavu

    Besan

  • Grapes

    Munthiringa

  • Green gram

    Cherupayar

    Moong

  • Green gram dal

    Cherupayar parippu

    Moong Daal

  • Green Peas

    Pacha pattani

    Mutter

  • Green Cardamom

    Pacha Elakkai

    Elaichi

  • Green Chilies

    Pachamulaku

    Hari Mirch

  • Home made Cheese

    Paneer

    Paneer

  • Jaggery

    Sarkkara

    Gur

  • Karinjeerakam

    Shahi Jeera

    Black gram

  • Lemons

    Cherunaranga

    Nimbu

  • Limes

    Cherunaranga

    Nimbu

  • Mango

    Manga

  • Maize

    Cholam

    Maka

  • Mint

    Puthina

    Pudina

  • Mustard Oil

    kadukenna

  • Nutmace

    Jathipathri

  • Nutmeg

    Jathikka

    Jaiphal

  • Pineapple

    Kaithachakka

  • Pistachio nuts

    Pista

    Pista

  • Plain Flour

    Maida

    Maida

  • Plain yogurt

    Thairu

    Dahi

  • Pomegranate seeds

     

    Anardana

  • Pomogranate

    Mathalanaranga

    Anar

  • Poppy seeds

    Kaskas

    Khus Khus

  • Potatoes

    Urulan kizhangu

    Aloo

  • Pulses : Generic name

    Parippu

    Daal

  • Ragi

    Muthari

    Madua

  • Raw Mango powder

     

    Aamchur Powder

  • Red chilies powder

    Mulaku podi

    Lal Mirchi powder

  • Red Lentils

     

    Masur daal

  • Red chilies

    Unakka mulaku

    Lal Mirchi

  • Red gram

    Thuvara parippu

    Tur Daal

  • Red Kidney beans

     

    Rajmah

  • Rice Flour

    Aripodi

    Gulab Pani

  • Rice ( boiled )

    Puzhukkalari

    Usna chawal

  • Rice (raw)

    Pachari

    Chawal

  • Rice flakes

    Aval

    Chewra

  • Rice puffed

    Pori

    Murrmura

  • Rose Water

    Panineeru

  • Saffron

    Kumkumapoovu

    Kesar

  • Samai

    Chama

    Kutki

  • Salt

    Uppu

    Namak

  • Semolina

    Rava

    Rawa

  • Sesame seeds

    Ellu

    Til

  • Spice Mixture

    Masala

    Masala

  • Spice Blend

     

    Garam Masala

  • Spinach

    Palak

    Palak

  • Star Anise

    Thakkolam

    Chakra Phool

  • Tamarind

    Valan Puli

    Imli

  • Tomato

    Thakkali

    Tamatar

  • Turmeric

    Manjal

  • Vermicelli

    Semiya

  • Vinegar

    Chorukka

    Sirka

  • Walnuts

     

    Akhrot

  • Wheat Flour

    Gothambu mavu

    Aata

  • Wheat Flour, Refined

    Maida mavu

    Maida

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Standard Abbreviations

  • tsp.

    teaspoon

  • T.

    tablespoon

  • c.

    cup

  • oz.

    ounce or ounces

  • lb.

    pound or pounds

  • sq.

    square

  • doz.

    dozen

  • pkg.

    package(s)

  • btl.

    bottle(s)

  • approx.

    temperature

  • sm.

    small

  • lg.

    large

  • pt.

    pint

  • qt.

    quart

  • pk.

    peck

  • bu.

    bushel

  • env.

    envelope(s)

  • pkt.

    packet(s)

  • mg

    milligrams

  • g

    gram(s)

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